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Electrical Conductivity Static electrical charge can be generated when
dissimilar surfaces move across each other, for example, when fuel moves
through a pipe, hose, valve, or fine filter. The rate at which the static charge
dissipates is proportional to the liquid’s ability to conduct electricity (electrical
conductivity). Pure hydrocarbons are essentially nonconductors. While
jet fuel is composed of hydrocarbons, it is a slightly better conductor because
it contains trace amounts of ionizable5 compounds, e.g., water, phenols, and
naphthenic acids.


Flash Point The flash point is the lowest temperature at which the vapors
above a flammable liquid will ignite on the application of an ignition source.
At the flash point temperature, just enough liquid has vaporized to bring the
vapor-air space over the liquid above the lower flammability limit. The flash
point is a function of the specific test conditions under which it is measured.
The flash point of wide-cut jet fuel is below 0°C (32°F) and is not typically
measured or controlled. The minimum flash point of Jet A kerosene-type jet
fuel is 38°C (100°F)


Civilian Jet Fuel Two organizations have taken the lead role in setting and maintaining specifications
for civilian aviation turbine fuel ( jet fuel ): the American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM) and the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MOD). The specifications issued by these
two organizations are very similar but not identical. Many other countries issue their own national
specifications for jet fuel; these are very nearly or completely identical to either the ASTM or MOD
specifications. In the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and parts of Eastern Europe, jet
fuel is covered by GOST specifications


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In the anshu aerospace-about flight-Flight is a relatively simple and widely studied phenomenon. As

surprising as it may sound, though, it is more often than not

misunderstood. For example, most descriptions of the physics of lift

fixate on the shape of the wing (i.e., airfoil) as the key factor in

understanding lift. The wings in these descriptions have a bulge on the

top so that the air must travel farther over the top than under the wing.

Yet we all know that wings fly quite well upside down, where the

shape of the wing is inverted. This is demonstrated by the

Thunderbirds in Figure , with wings of almost no thickness at all.

To cover for this paradox, we sometimes see a description for inverted

flight that is different than for normal flight. In reality, the shape of the

wing has little to do with how lift is generated, and any description

that relies on the shape of the wing is misleading at best. This assertion

will be discussed in detail in Chapter 1. It should be noted that the

shape of the wing does has everything to do with the efficiency of the

wing at cruise speeds and with stall characteristics.

Let us look at three examples of successful

wings that clearly violate the descriptions that

rely on the shape of the wing as the basis of lift.

The first example is a very old design. Figure

 shows a photograph of a Curtis 1911 Model

D type IV pusher. Clearly, the air travels the

same distance over the top and under the bottom

of the wing. Yet this airplane flew and was

the second airplane purchased by the U.S.

Army in 1911.